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What information do we have about the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and domestic animals?

It appears that it is rare for domestic animals to become ill when naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 and this has been mild illness only and, crucially, there is no evidence that domestic animals are involved in the spread of COVID-19 [15].

The human-animal bond people share with their companion animals is very important and can provide much needed support, comfort and companionship to people in these difficult times, so if possible people and their companion animals should stay together for the benefit of both.

Summary

There are now millions of cases globally of COVID-19 [6] and, despite this, there have only been a small number of confirmed cases of pets testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. It is likely that the source of the infection for these animals was one or more persons with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Just a very small number of infected animals have shown signs of illness and these have generally been mild.

The table below summarises the animal species for which information on natural or experimental infection is available [7]:

SpeciesType of infectionSusceptibility
(none / low / intermediate / high)
Clinical signsTransmission
Poultry (chicken, ducks, and
turkeys)
ExperimentalNoneNoNo
PigsExperimentalLowPossible (mild depression)Possible
DogsNatural and
experimental
LowNoNo
CattleExperimentalLowNoNot demonstrated
North American deer miceExperimentalIntermediateNoYes
RabbitsExperimentalIntermediateNoPossible
Cats (domestic) Natural and
experimental
HighYes (none
to very mild
in some
cases)
Yes, between cats
Tigers and lions NaturalHighYesYes, between
animals
Ferrets ExperimentalHighNo (very
mild in
some
cases)
Yes, between ferrets
MinksNaturalHighYesYes, between minks
and suggested from
mink to humans
Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus
aegyptiacus)
ExperimentalHighNoYes, between Fruit
bats
Golden Syrian hamstersExperimentalHighYes (none
to very mild
in some
cases)
Yes, between
hamsters
Macaques (Macaca
fascicularis and Macaca
mulatta)
ExperimentalHighYesYes
Savanna monkeys (Chlorocebus spp.)
African Green, rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys
ExperimentalHighNoNot reported
Raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides)ExperimentalHighOnly subtle clinical signsYes

The table below summarises the details of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection cases that have been documented and reported in animals:

Number in ArticleEvent Start or Report DateCountry (State)Species (Number)Source of InfectionClinical Signs Shown by Animal?
50Report date Nov 13, 2020 Greece (Kozani region) MINK (2 farms) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
49Nov 5, 2020 Italy (Bitonto, Bari region) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
48Report date Oct 29, 2020 Brazil CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
47Report date Oct 27, 2020 Italy MINKHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
46Report date Oct 24, 2020 Sweden (Solvesborg) MINKHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
45Report date Oct 23, 2020Canada (Niagara, Ontario) DOG (1-2) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
44Report date Oct 22, 2020 Brazil CAT (3) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
37Report date Oct 7, 2020 USA (Utah, Wisconsin, Michigan)

(See note below table) ∞
MINKHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes - Unusually high mortality rate on farms
43Report date Oct 6, 2020 USA (Alabama) CAT (1)Not reported Not reported
43Report date Sep 30, 2020 USA (Texas) CAT (1)Not reported Not reported
43Report date Sep 30, 2020 USA (Texas) DOG (1)Not reported Not reported
42Report date Sep 25, 2020Japan (Tokyo)DOG (2)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
37Report date Sep 24, 2020 USA (Utah) MINKHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes - Unusually high mortality rate on farms
43Report date Sep 24, 2020 USA (New York) CAT (3)Not reported Not reported
37Report date Sep 17, 2020 USA (Utah) MINKHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes - Unusually high mortality rate on farms
43Report date Sep 17, 2020 USA (Kentucky) CAT (1)Not reported Not reported
41Report date Sep 11, 2020ItalyCAT (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes, the cat had respiratory signs and died, unknown if SARS-CoV-2 was associated with death/illness
40Report date Sep 2, 2020USA (Texas)DOG (2)Not reported Not reported
40Report date Sep 2, 2020USA (Texas)CAT (3)Not reported Not reported
40Report date Aug 27, 2020USA (Louisiana)CAT (1)Not reported Not reported
6Report date Sep 14, 2020NetherlandsMINK (thousands) - 52 farms now infectedHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
38Report date Aug 27, 2020USA (Georgia)CAT (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected Yes, but also had other concurrent disease
19Report date Sep 9, 2020Denmark
(See note below table)ˠ
MINK (thousands) – 10 farms now infected (nine in Hjørring municipality and one in Frederikshavn municipality) uman-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
6Report date Sep 7, 2020Netherlands (See note below table) β MINK (thousands) – 50 farms now infected Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
37Report date Aug 27, 2020USA (Utah)MINK (5 farms, thousands of mink) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes - Unusually high mortality rate on farms
6Report date Aug 27, 2020NetherlandsMINK (thousands) – 42 farms now infected Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
19Report date Aug 27, 2020Denmark (North Jutland)MINK (thousands) – 5 farms now infected Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
38Report date Aug 25, 2020USA (Maryland)CAT (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
38Report date Aug 24, 2020USA (California)CAT (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
37Report date Aug 17, 2020 USA (Utah) MINK (5+) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes - Unusually high mortality rate on farms
6Report date Aug 17, 2020 Netherlands MINK (thousands) – 33 farms now infected Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
19Report date Aug 14, 2020 Denmark (North Jutland) MINK (thousands) – 4 farms now infected Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
36Report date Aug 13, 2020 (Start of event Jul 29) USA (Brazos County, Brazos, Texas) CAT (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
36Report date Aug 13, 2020 (Start of event Jul 28) USA (Brazos County, Brazos, Texas) DOG (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
35Aug 12, 2020USA (New York) CAT (2)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
34Report date Aug 10, 2020 (Start of event Aug 10) Hong Kong (Wan Chai, Wan Chai District) DOG (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
34Report date Aug 10, 2020 (Start of event Aug 4) Hong Kong (Tuen Mun, Tuen Mun District) CAT (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
34Report date Aug 10, 2020 (Start of event Jul 31) Hong Kong (Tsuen Wan, Tsuen Wan District) CAT (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
34Report date Aug 10, 2020 (Start of event Jul 31) Hong Kong (Sham Shui Po, Yau Tsim Mong District) DOG (1)Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
34Report date Aug 10, 2020 (Start of event Jul 28) Hong Kong (Tai Kok Tsui, Yau Tsim Mong District) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected No
33Report date Aug 12, 2020
(Start of event Jul 17)
South Africa (City of Johannesburg, Gauteng) PUMA (1) Human-to-animal (infected handler) suspected No
32Aug 12, 2020USA (New York) CAT (2) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
31Report date Aug 11, 2020 (Start of event Aug 8)USA (North Carolina) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes, the dog had respiratory signs and died, unknown if other causes of death/illness
30Report date Aug 7, 2020 (positive test Jul 30 and Aug 2)JapanDOG (2)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported
29Aug 3, 2020USA (Louisiana)DOG (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported
6Aug 3, 2020Netherlands (27 farms now infected, 27th in Boxmeer) MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
6Jul 27, 2020Netherlands (26 farms now infected, 26th in Oploo) MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
28Jul 22, 2020USA (North Carolina) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
28Jul 22, 2020USA (Wisconsin)DOG (2 from different households) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
28Jul 22, 2020USA (Utah) CAT (4 from different households) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
28Jul 22, 2020USA (Utah) DOGS (2 from different households) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
27Jul 27, 2020UK CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes (respiratory but also had herpesvirus)
26Jul 21, 2020USA (Arizona) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
25Jul 15, 2020USA (Arizona) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes (mild respiratory signs, now recovered)
24Jul 21, 2020Hong Kong (Sheung Wan, Central and Western District)CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
6Jul 17, 2020Netherlands (25 farms now infected) MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
23Jul 16, 2020 (OIE report date)Spain MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
6Jul 15, 2020Netherlands (24 farms now infected)MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
34Jul 13, 2020Hong Kong (Wong Tai Sin, Wong Tai Sin District) CAT (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspectedNo
22Jul 9, 2020USA (South Carolina) DOG (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported, dog euthanased for a chronic health condition
22Jul 7, 2020USA (California) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported
22Jul 7, 2020USA (Austin, Texas) DOG (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
6Jul 6, 2020Netherlands (Gemert - North Brabant) 20 farms now infected MINK (thousands)Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
6Jul 3, 2020Netherlands (Landhorst -North Brabant) MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Yes
19Jul 1, 2020Denmark (North Jutland) MINK (thousands) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) suspected Not reported
21Jul 1, 2020USA (Georgia) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported
21Jun 24, 2020USA (New York) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported
21Jun 24, 2020USA (New York) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Not reported
20Jun 24, 2020Denmark (North Jutland) DOG (1 - on affected mink farm) Human-to-animal (infected owner) suspected although could be mink-dog No
19Jun 17, 2020Denmark (North Jutland) MINK (1 additional farm) Human-to-animal (infected farm owner or workers) suspected No
6Jun 15, 2020The NetherlandsMINK at a total of 15 farms nowNot reportedNot reported
19Jun 13, 2020Denmark (North Jutland)MINK (1 farm, multiple animals) Human-to-animal (infected farm owner or workers) suspected Yes
18Jun 10, 2020 (report date, event start May 19) USA (Cook County, Cook, Illinois)CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes (but not known if related to SARS-CoV-2)
6Jun 9, 2020The Netherlands (Noord Brabant and Limburg Province) MINK at a total of 13 farms now Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) or mink-to-mink suspectedSome animals had clinical signs, most asymptomatic
6Jun 4, 2020The Netherlands (Noord Brabant) and Venray in Limburg ProvinceMINK at a total of 9 farms nowHuman-to-animal (infected farm workers) or mink-to-mink suspected Not reported
17Jun 2, 2020USA (Minnesota) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes
16Jun 2, 2020USA (New York state)DOG (2) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected Yes (1 dog)
No (1 dog)
15May 26, 2020 Russia (Moskva) CAT (1) Unknown Unknown
12May 25, 2020 The Netherlands (Noord Brabant) CAT (4; on same mink farm as** - 7 cats in total)*** Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) or mink-to-cat suspected None reported
14May 18, 2020 Spain (La Rioja) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
13May 15, 2020 The Netherlands DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected YES (but not known if related to SARS-CoV-2).

Dog was euthanased.
12May 15, 2020 The Netherlands CATS (3; on a mink farm)** Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) or mink-to-cat suspected No
11May 13, 2020 Germany (Upper Palatinate, Bavaria)CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected No
10May 12, 2020 France (Bordeaux) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected YES (but not known if related to SARS-CoV-2)
6May 8, 2020 The Netherlands (Noord Brabant ;De Mortel & Deurne) MINK (multiple) Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) and mink-to-mink suspected YES
9May 8, 2020Spain (Catalonia) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspectedYES (but not thought to be related to SARS-CoV-2). Cat was euthanased due to underlying heart condition.
8May 1, 2020 France (Paris) CAT (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected YES (but not known if related to SARS-CoV-2)
7Apr 28, 2020 USA (North Carolina) DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) was suspected but seems was just contamination YES (but not known if related to SARS-CoV-2)
6Apr 26, 2020 and Apr 23, 2020 The Netherlands (Noord Brabant - Gemert-Bakel & Laarbeek; May 26)
(Milheeze; May 23, 2020)
MINK (multiple)Human-to-animal (infected farm workers) and mink-to-mink suspected YES (but probably unlreated to SARS-CoV-2)
5Mar 23, 2020 USA (New York) CATS (2) Human-to-animal suspected (owner for one cat, other unknown) NO
4Mar 30, 2020 Hong Kong CAT (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected NO
3Mar 27, 2020 USA (New York/Bronx Zoo) TIGERS/LIONS (7)* Human-to-animal (zoo-worker) suspected YES
3Mar 27, 2020 USA (New York/Bronx Zoo) LION (1) Human-to-animal (zoo-worker) suspected YES
3Mar 27, 2020 USA (New York/Bronx Zoo) TIGER (1) Human-to-animal (zoo-worker) suspected YES
2Mar 18, 2020 BelgiumCAT (1)Human-to-animal (owner) suspected YES (but not known if related to SARS-CoV-2)
1Mar 18, 2020 Hong Kong DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected NO
1Feb 27, 2020Hong Kong DOG (1) Human-to-animal (owner) suspected YES (but not thought to be related to SARS-CoV-2). Dog was euthanased due to underlying health conditions.

Note: * 8 large cats (5 tigers and 3 lions) were believed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. The first positive tiger reported to the OIE on April 6 was not included in the faecal testing, but the first positive lion reported on April 17 was included.

** On May 15 there were seropositive results for SARS-CoV-2 for 3 cats on a mink farm in the Netherlands, on May 25 a further 4 cats from this farm were found to also be seropositive for SARS-CoV-2, a total of 7 cats reported***.

ˠ The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) will no longer issue press releases on individual findings of COVID-19 on Danish mink farms. Instead, herds with confirmed infections will be identified on the DVFA’s website. We will no longer report new outbreaks in Danish mink farms here.

β We will no longer report new outbreaks in Dutch mink farms here.

We will no longer report new outbreaks in US mink farms here but updated information on mink (and other animal cases) in the USA can be found on the USDA website.

Due to the increasingly large numbers of animals being tested as part of SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, there are increasing numbers of animals being reported positive around the world. We will only report cases that are different and add to our knowledge of the disease in some way from now on, rather than reporting each case in a domestic animal.

Please see the section in the text indicated in the first column for more information on each case.

There is no evidence of companion animals, livestock or wildlife in Australia being infected or becoming ill with SARS-CoV-2.

There is evidence that cats are susceptible to being infected with SARS-CoV-2, seemingly from close contact with people who are infected and shedding the virus, although this does not seem common. Cats also seem to sometimes show mild symptoms associated with the viral infection.

Mink, ferrets, primates and Syrian hamsters are also susceptible to being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and, to a lesser degree, dogs.

There is no evidence of any cat, ferret, hamster, dog or other domestic animal transmitting the virus to humans, or that they play any role in the spread of the virus. It is possible that mink may have transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to a couple of humans in the Netherlands on mink farms but this has yet to be confirmed.

Since there is evidence of animals becoming infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans who have COVID-19, we need to take some precautionary steps to protect animals.

Advice

In order to protect yourself, your animals and other people [8], our advice is to:

  • Act as if you have the virus and limit your potential to spread it – practice social distancing or self-isolate as appropriate to your situation.
  • Minimise contact with people and animals outside of your family unit or household to minimise the risk of transmission of the virus. If one of you is exposed in any way, this will result in all of you being exposed. Similarly, if one of you is infected with the virus and interacts with others, you risk infecting them and, as a result, anyone they have contact with. So, take precautions to protect your family unit of people and pets, and the community.
  • Socially distance your pet(s) in the same way you are socially distancing yourself from other people. Do not let pets interact with people or other animals outside the household. This will minimise the risk to them and the potential to bring the virus into your household.
  • Animal owners without symptoms of COVID-19 should continue to practice good hygiene during interactions with animals. This includes washing hands before and after such interactions and when handling animal food, waste, or supplies.
  • If you are infected with SARS-CoV-2, you should eliminate or limit your contact with other people and animals. Someone else should care for any animals, including pets. You can find more information here.
  • If your pet has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, you should keep them in the house with you.
  • If your pet has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and is sick, call your veterinarian for advice; do not take your pet to the veterinary clinic unless your veterinarian has advised you to and can take precautions.
  • If it is necessary for a pet who has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 to leave their house (e.g. to go to a veterinary clinic for medical care or because their owner is too sick to care for them or has to go into hospital), it is important that precautions are taken to reduce the risk of exposing other people or animals to the virus.

Information about the novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) in people

The current spread of the disease called COVID-19 is a result of human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 [3, 9].

Transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19 primarily occurs through contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids (generally saliva or mucus droplets in a cough or sneeze). It is also possible for transmission to occur if a person touches a surface or object that has been contaminated with infectious material and then touches their mouth, nose, or possibly eyes [9]. Non-porous (smooth) surfaces (e.g. glass, metal, phones, countertops, door knobs) are more likely to potentially transmit viruses and for longer than porous materials (e.g. paper, money, wood, pet fur, clothing) [9].

Other (non-COVID-19) coronaviruses in animals

There are many different types of coronavirus. Media articles reporting coronavirus being detected in dogs and cats have generally referred to distinctly different virus types to the one causing the human disease COVID-19 (e.g. canine coronavirus, which can cause mild diarrhoea, and feline coronavirus, which can cause feline infectious peritonitis) [5]. These dog or cat specific versions of the coronavirus are not zoonotic (cannot be transmitted to people) and so pose no risk to humans [1, 3, 5].

Specific information from reports and studies about SARS-CoV-2 and animals

Natural infections in domestic and captive or farmed wild animals

1 Dogs and cats in Hong Kong

There were reports from February to April 2020 of two dogs in Hong Kong testing positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus after the dogs were exposed to people infected with COVID-19 [3, 1011]. The first dog, an elderly (17 year old) Pomeranian had repeated tests while in quarantine and did develop an antibody response to the virus after further testing; this dog later had negative tests for the virus and was released from quarantine to the owner. Sadly, this dog passed away shortly afterwards; this was thought to be due to ongoing health issues in the elderly dog, rather than COVID-19 [12].

A two-year-old German Shepherd dog also tested positive for the virus while quarantined because the owner had tested positive for COVID-19 [11]. This dog also developed antibodies to the virus and virus was isolated from this dog. The German Shepherd later had negative virus test results for 10 consecutive days. Another mixed-breed dog from the same household was also quarantined but continually tested negative for the virus.

None of these dogs showed any clinical signs consistent with COVID-19 infection [11].

2 Cat in Belgium

There was a report in March 2020 of a pet cat in Belgium testing positive for the virus, after the cat’s owner was infected with COVID-19 [23]. This cat was unwell, and had vomiting, diarrhoea, and respiratory signs [13]. The cat recovered uneventfully and it is reported that the cat would have ongoing monitoring to determine whether antibodies to the virus develop [1314]. No conclusions can responsibly be drawn regarding this case in Belgium because the samples that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were taken from the environment (and not directly from the animal) by the owner and no antibody tests were performed. Therefore, contamination of samples from the environment/owner cannot be ruled out. In addition, it seems that the cat was not fully evaluated for other, more common causes for his/her clinical signs. Therefore, although it is suspected that the cat was infected with SARS-CoV-2, this cannot be confirmed [12].

3 Tigers and lions in the Bronx Zoo

At the end of March 2020, several tigers and lions at a zoo in New York showed signs of respiratory illness. The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed that one tiger at the zoo tested positive to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is not known if the animals’ illness was related to SARS-CoV-2 [12, 15]. Only one animal was tested initially due to the difficulties in testing the big cats but it was assumed that the other big cats were also infected.

On April 23, the Bronx Zoo confirmed that three other tigers and three African lions that exhibited a cough also tested positive for COVID-19. All eight cats have recovered. None of the zoo’s other cats have shown any signs of suspicious illness.

The zoo confirmed that the cats were infected by a staff person who was asymptomatically infected with the virus or before that person developed symptoms [1617].

4 Cat in Hong Kong

One pet cat tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong on March 30, after the cat’s owner was diagnosed with COVID-19. The cat showed no signs of disease but was quarantined anyway [12, 18]. The cat had anti-bodies to SARS-CoV-2 on further testing. The cat was returned to the owner (May 4) after completing quarantine and consecutive negative test results [19].

Testing of cats and dogs in quarantine in Hong Kong

As of March 31, the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department in Hong Kong had conducted tests on 27 dogs and 15 cats held in quarantine because they came from households with people ill from COVID-19. Of these, only two dogs and one cat (as described above) had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 [12]. No further tests or positive cases have been reported and no animals have developed clinical signs of respiratory disease [12].

5 Cats in New York

On April 22, the Centre for Disease Control and the US National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two pet cats. Both cats had mild respiratory illness and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 on March 23. The cats lived in two separate areas of New York state [12, 20].

One cat’s owner had COVID-19 prior to the cat showing clinical signs, and the other cat in the household exhibited no clinical signs of illness [12, 20].

The other cat with SARS-CoV-2 infection, has no known contact with people confirmed to be ill with COVID-19 but does live in a household in an affected neighbourhood and is allowed to go outdoors. It has been suggested that the virus may have been transmitted to the cat by mildly ill or asymptomatic household members or through contact with an infected person outside the cat’s home [12, 2021].

On April 29, both cats were confirmed to have tested positive for antibodies for SARS-Cov-2 [22]. This supports the evidence that these cats were infected with SARS-Cov-2. Both cats made a full recovery.

6 Mink on mink farms in The Netherlands

On April 23, 25 and 30, the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality reported that mink from three mink farms in the Netherlands had tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The mink had respiratory and gastrointestinal signs [23]. This is considered to be a case of transmission from humans to animals; as people working at the mink farms had symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Further testing was undertaken [24] and a preprint paper was posted on bioRxiv with further details about the outbreak at these two farms (May 18) [25].

Update May 7
Two additional mink farms in the Netherlands were later found to have SARS-CoV-2 infected Mink (May 7), bringing the total to five farms [26]. It is thought that infected humans transmitted the SARS-CoV-2 virus to the mink. Ongoing screening for the virus is being carried out on mink farms.
Screening is also being conducted at rabbit farms in the area because, according to a report from the Netherlands Agriculture Minister, research at Erasmus University Rotterdam showed that rabbits also are sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 [26]. There has been no peer-reviewed evidence of rabbit susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 yet, so the monitoring on rabbit farms in the Netherlands is precautionary and may provide evidence to better understand the risk to rabbits.

Update May 19
On May 19, the Agriculture Minister of the Netherlands reported new research findings in the ongoing investigation into COVID-19 at mink farms in that country [2728]. The reported findings include that SARS-CoV-2 infection in mink can lead to pneumonia and death, but the proportion of animals who become ill and the number who die are low. In addition, pregnant animals appear to develop more serious disease and are more likely to die as a result but there has been no increase in pup mortality noted [12]. It was also found that mink infected with the virus may be asymptomatic [2728]. Additionally, comparisons of viral sequences detected in samples from mink on the farms suggest that, after mink were infected by farm workers with COVID-19, there was transmission of virus between the mink on each farm [26].

In the Minister’s report on May 19, and based on further investigations of viral genetic material from infected mink and those from infected farm workers (including comparative analyses plus phylogenetic mapping of viral genomic sequences), it was suggested that mink-to-human transmission may have occurred in one person.

Update May 25
On May 25, a 2nd incidence of possible mink-to-human transmission involving up to three people was detected on one of the infected mink farms [29]. Further investigation is being undertaken to clarify this possibility.

Extra precautionary measures have been put in place on the mink farms [2728] and, from May 20, mandatory testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection at all mink farms in The Netherlands is being undertaken. It is also now mandatory that any of an animal (mink or otherwise) with SARS-CoV-2 in the Netherlands must be reported to the appropriate government authority.

Update June 4
Dutch authorities have now reported outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 within seven companies at nine locations [30].

For all mink farms, the following measures were put in place [31]:

  • Testing conditions imposed on all mink farms (all mink farms must send the cadavers of mink who have died of natural causes to the ‘national reference’ lab (at Wageningen University’s Food Safety Research dept) for PCR testing to check for SARS-CoV-2 and all farms are subject to a once off screening where blood samples are ELISA tested for antibodies. If antibodies are found, it means that SARS-CoV-2 was present or could still be present at that farm. The latter is yet to be confirmed.).
  • Prohibition on transport of mink and mink manure
  • Hygiene protocols for visitors and vehicles
  • Prohibition on visitors entering the sheds
  • Mink farmers to make sure that other animals (dogs, cats, ferrets) do not leave or enter the facility.

The mink companies infected with COVID-19 will be culled starting June 5 [30].

Summary of what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in mink [12]

  • SARS-CoV-2 infection in mink can lead to pneumonia and death, but morbidity and mortality rates are low. Pregnant animals appear to develop more serious disease and are more likely to die as a result.
  • Mink can be asymptomatically infected with SARS-CoV-2.
  • Although mink were likely initially infected via transmission from farm workers with COVID-19, mink-to-mink transmission may have helped spread the virus within each farm.
  • Analyses suggest it is plausible that mink-to-human transmission may have occurred on the farms.
  • Some cats on the affected farms seem to have been infected by mink (possibly by mink manure). It is not yet known what role, if any, the cats played in transmission of the virus and additional studies are ongoing.

Update June 14
On June 9, the chief veterinary officer of the Netherlands addressed a letter to the OIE General Director giving an update on the situation: there are now 13 infected mink farms (eleven in the province of Noord Brabant and two in the province of Limburg), and confirming that the decision had been made to cull and destroy all mink on infected premises in order to avert potential risks [32].

Culling of the infected companies was due to start on June 5 but a temporary provision was filed by the Animal Rights and Fur for Animals Foundation with the Board of Appeal for Business, requesting the judge to suspend the culling. The hearing took place on June 5, and the judge rejected the request not to cull mink farms. The cull was started on June 6 [33].

The potential involvement of cats in the spread of SARS-Cov-2 in Dutch mink farms and the fate of the barn cats remaining on the premises of the depopulated farms, are to be addressed separately [33].

The national measures, such as the hygiene protocol, the transport ban for minks, and the visitors’ ban, still apply. The compulsory early warning (EW) survey (weekly submission of dead animals) and the mandatory notification requirement also remain in force [33].

A majority of the Dutch House of Representatives expressed the wish during a debate on June 10, that the depopulated mink farms would not be repopulated. Different modes of compensation and a timetable of the entire industry were discussed [33].

Update June 19
The number of SARS-CoV-2 infected (and culled) mink farms in the Netherlands has been reported to have increased to 15; the 2 last added outbreaks were reported to the House of Representatives in a letter from the Agriculture minister dated Jun 15 [34].

Update July 6
On July 3, Dutch authorities announced that another mink farm was infected with the novel coronavirus, making 18 in total. Thousands of mink on the farm are to be culled [35].

Update July 10
In total, 20 mink farms in the Netherlands have now been declared infected. All animals were culled at the 18 farms where SARS-CoV-2 has previously been established. The last 2 locations, the 19th and 20th companies, were depopulated on July 6. The Dutch government is working on a scheme under which mink companies can voluntarily terminate their business operations in the short term, prior to the legal prohibition on mink farms from 2024 [36].

Update July 17
In total, 24 mink companies in the Netherlands have now been declared infected [37].

Update July 19
In total, 25 mink companies in the Netherlands have now been declared infected [38].

Update July 27
In total, 26 mink companies in the Netherlands have now been declared infected [39].

Update August 3
Another mink farm in Boxmeer, Netherlands has been found to have SARS-CoV-2 infected mink. A total of 27 mink farms in the Netherlands have now been declared infected [40].

Update August 18
Coronavirus has been found on several more Dutch mink farms, taking the total to 33. So far, some 1.5 million mink have been culled because of SARS-CoV-2; this is approximately 30% of the animals kept on the country’s 128 mink farms. The fur industry is due to be phased out by 2024, but pressure is mounting on farm minister Carola Schouten to order a preventative cull across the entire sector now. Mink are known to have passed the virus on to at least 2 farm workers[^95].

Update August 26
As of Aug 26, 41 mink farms in the Netehrlnds are now reported to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 [41].

Update September 1
Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have now been detected on 42 mink farms in The Netherlands [42]. It has been reported that more than 100 mink farms in the Netherlands will be ordered closed by March [42].

Update September 11
Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have now been detected on 50 mink farms in The Netherlands [43].

Update September 15
Infections with SARS-CoV-2 at mink farms in Wilbertoord (municipality of Mill en Sint Hubert) and Overloon (municipality of Boxmeer) have now been confirmed. This means a total of 52 mink farms in the Netherlands have now been declared infected [44].

Update September 18
Infections with SARS-CoV-2 at 53 mink farms in the Netherlands have now been declared infected [45].The implementation of a ban on mink farming which was approved by the government 7 years ago will be accelerated as a result of the coronavirus crisis. The practice will be forbidden from the end of March 2021, nearly 3 years earlier than planned [45].
It has also been reported that at least 66 employees or their family members linked to fur farms have had coronavirus, with mink a likely source [4546].
Note that we will no longer update this article with reports of new infections in mink in the Netherlands.

It is worth noting that there has been no information made available about COVID-19 affecting mink in China, despite China having the largest mink industry in the world. A preprint paper (not peer-reviewed) published on medRxiv on Jan 25, highlighted that mink could be a potential SARS-CoV-2 reservoir [47].

However in July 2020, a circular titled “Interim SARS-CoV-2 Guidance and Recommendations for Farmed Mink and Other Mustelids” was distributed to mink producers in Wisconsin, where USA’s leading mink industry is located. The document, developed collaboratively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and state animal and public health partners using a One Health approach, is available here. COVID-19 in minks is not readily identifiable due to its mild clinical signs and relatively short course, as apparent from the Dutch and Danish observations. Hence, to obtain early information on this zoonotic disease in the USA, a more proactive approach will be required (e.g., planned official surveillance and obligatory notification of suspected cases by producers and veterinary practitioners). Similar measures are expected from other mink countries, such as China and Poland [35].

7 Dog in North Carolina (USA)

It was reported on April 27, that a dog in the US state of North Carolina tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This was thought to be another case of human to animal transmission, as the pug dog lives in a household and in very close contact with people infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The dog was tested as part of a household surveillance study coordinated by researchers at Duke University. The pug was described as having mild signs of illness but the signs described are typical of the breathing difficulties suffered by brachycephalic dogs like pugs, although he was also reportedly not eating normally. It is not known if any of his signs were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The three other pets in the family (another dog, a cat and a lizard) tested negative for the SARS-CoV-2 virus [48].

New information was reported on this case on May 28 [49]. The United States Department of Agriculture said a series of tests were conducted over several weeks after the Duke University researchers positively identified SARS-CoV-2 in the pug’s oronasal swab. It is now reported that the original test was an inconclusive weak positive and that subsequent tests (PCR to detect viral genetic material and antibody tests) were negative. This indicates that the dog was not infected with SARS-CoV-2. The initial inconclusive weak positive may have been due to contamination from the dog’s infected owners.

8 Cat in Paris

A study of infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cats living with owners in Paris suspected of having been infected with COVID-19 was officially reported to the French Veterinary Services on May 1. One cat tested positive for the virus and was likely infected by the owner [50].

9 Cat in Spain (Catalonia)

A cat in Spain, who was euthanased due to heart failure (most likely from a serious pre-existing genetic heart condition), tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (May 8) [51]. The cat lived with several people who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was likely infected with SARS-CoV-2 by these people.

10 Cat in France (Bordeaux)

The National Veterinary School of Toulouse (ENVT) announced on May 12, that a cat tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Bordeaux, France [52]. The cat lived with people who were suspected to have COVID-19 and was probably infected by them. The cat had respiratory signs, was treated by a veterinarian, and the signs persisted despite treatment. The cat was then tested for SARS-CoV-2 and the results returned positive. No further details were given. The ENVT’s statement concluded that, in the light of available scientific knowledge, there is no evidence that pets and farm animals play a role in the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus [52].

11 Cat in Germany

A confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection of a cat in Germany was notified to the World Organisation for Animal Health on May 12 [3]. This 6-year-old cat lived with her owner in a retirement home; sadly the owner died due to COVID-19 on April 12 [52]. There was a COVID-19 outbreak in the retirement home, and there were another 2 cats also living there. All 3 cats had contact with the residents of the home, but none of the cats showed any signs of respiratory disease. Only one cat tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the cats were immediately isolated in a quarantine facility and had further testing on May 4. The 2 negative cats remained negative while the positive cat was confirmed as positive for SARS-CoV-2. As of May 6, none of the cats had shown any signs of respiratory disease. The cats were to be closely monitored for clinical signs of SARS-CoV-2, and further investigations performed [52].

12 Cats on SARS-CoV-2 affected mink farms in the Netherlands

It was reported on May 15, that three cats on one of the SARS-CoV-2 affected mink farms in the Netherlands were found to have antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 (eleven cats were tested on the farm) [53].This indicates that the cats had previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2 but no viable virus was found in the cats. It is not known how the cats contracted the infection but they may have been infected from infected farm workers or mink [53].

Further research was conducted on this farm and it was reported on May 25 that, in total, seven of the twenty-four sampled cats at this farm were found to have antibodies against the virus [29]. This includes the three cats reported on above (so, an extra four cats were found to be positive when a further thirteen cats were tested). In just one of the seven positive cats, the presence of viral genetic material was also demonstrated.

13 Dog in the Netherlands

On May 15, the 8 year old American bulldog of a COVID-19 patient in the Netherlands was reported to have antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 [53]. The dog had breathing problems and was euthanased on April 30 due to worsening of his/her condition. It is not known if the dog’s disease was related to SARS-CoV-2 and the dog tested negative for viable virus. This case is not related to the infected mink farms in the Netherlands [53].

14 Cat in Spain (La Rioja)

Researchers from Spain tested asymptomatic mammalian pets in quarantine because they came from 17 households with confirmed human cases of COVID-19 infection [54]. A total of 23 animals were tested: eight cats, one guinea pig, two rabbits and twelve dogs. On May 21, it was reported in a medRxiv preprint that one cat who displayed no clinical symptoms tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; the remaining pets tested negative.

15 Cat in Russia (Moskva)

On May 18, a 5 year old cat in Moskva, Russia tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and has been quarantined [55]. The case was notified to the OIE [56] but no further details have not been given at this time.

16 Dog in USA (New York state)

The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) reported the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dog (German shepherd) in New York state on June 1 [57]. The dog was tested after he/she showed signs of respiratory illness and had positive test results for the viral genetic material (PCR) and also antibodies. The dog is expected to make a full recovery and it is not known whether the dog’s illness was related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection at this stage. This is presumed to be a case of human-animal transmission as before the dog showed signs, one of the dog’s owners tested positive for COVID-19, and another showed symptoms consistent with the virus. A second dog in the household tested positive for antibodies, indicating previous infection, despite showing no signs of illness.

Update July 30
The German shepherd, named Buddy, died from what his veterinarian believed to be lymphoma on July 11. The media reports focus on Buddy having been infected with SARS-CoV-2, but it seems likely that Buddy’s clinical signs were due to lymphoma [58].
There is not a lot known about the disease in our companion animals but the information we do have indicates that infections in dogs and cats are usually mild and self-limiting; all of the infected animals who have shown significant clinical signs have had other conditions which are most likely the cause of those signs.
More research is being conducted (for example, testing of samples submitted to veterinary laboratories for other reasons) and over time more information about the infection and effects in companion animals will become available.

17 Cat in USA (Minneapolis, Minnesota)

In St. Paul, Minneapolis, a cat has been confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (June 2) [59]. The cat was tested after presenting to the veterinarian with a fever and upper respiratory illness and the history of having the owner confirmed to be infected with COVID-19. A dog in the household remains healthy at this time. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health and Minnesota Department of Health has recommended the cat remain isolated at home for 14 days following the positive test results.

18 Cat in USA (Cook County, Cook, Illinois)

In Cook County, Cook, Illinois, USA, a domestic cat from a known positive COVID-19 household was was presented to the veterinarians with fever, oral lesions and ulcerations on the tongue. The cat had a routine feline respiratory panel, FIV and FeLV tests which were all negative whereas the the feline coronavirus serologic test was positive (this is different from SARS-CoV-2 and a common finding in cats). The initial testing laboratory also conducted a SARS-CoV-2 test which was positive (May 19) and infection with SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed at National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) based upon molecular testing (PCR and sequencing) (May 27) and reported to the OIE (June 10). The cat is reportedly recovering [60].

19 Mink in Denmark (North Jutland)

It was reported on June 13 that the mink at a farm in North Jutland, Denmark were being slaughtered after several of the animals and one employee tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 [34]. The farm was immediately quarantined. It is believed that the mink were infected by the owner or an employee who had the virus. Denmark is regarded as the world’s top mink producer, and is said to produce 40 per cent of the world’s mink pelts [34].

After SARS-Cov-2 was discovered in Danish mink in June, the government set strict requirements for infection protection on all approximately 1200 mink farms in Denmark. For example, everyone must wear a face mask when inside a mink farm, and mink owners must make a detailed plan for infection protection[^95].

A second farm in North Jutland has also had mink test positive for SARS-CoV-2 [61] (June 24) and the outbreak in Denmark has been reported to the OIE [62]. COVID-19 in farmed mink has now been made a notifiable disease in Denmark, similar to the measures undertaken in the Netherlands [61]. Mink owners and practicing veterinarians have a duty to contact the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration if they suspect that their animals may be infected[^95].

In June, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration conducted a random survey of 10 percent of Danish mink farms. None of the 125 mink herds examined were infected with COVID-19. Since then, the government adopted a new monitoring program of all Danish mink farms[^95].

Update July 6
It was reported on July 1 that the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration found that a 3rd North Jutland mink herd with approximately 5000 mink is infected with COVID-19. The herd was tested after people related to the mink farm told the Food Authority that they had tested positive to COVID-19. The testing on farm showed that more than 50% of the herd is infected with COVID-19. The government decided that the herd should be killed as a precaution [35].
The government decided, as part of the strategy for managing COVID-19 in mink farms, that all mink owners must use protective equipment and have a duty to prepare a detailed plan for infection protection against COVID-19[^95].

Update August 18
The test results of the country’s mink farms were evaluated when all mink herds have been tested twice, as part of the monitoring program. The 1st 925 mink farms were tested without COVID-19 being found. However, on August 14, Mink on a mink farm in Hjorring Municipality tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This is the 4th mink farm to be found positive for the virus. All 4 mink farms are located in North Jutland[^95].

To avoid infection outside the farm, the infected mink farm is now subject to strict restrictions. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration has also gone through the mink farm’s enclosure to minimise the risk of mink escaping. The mink owner must also regularly count his mink to document that none has run away[^95].

With the new intensified measures, the government decided to let infected mink herds live rather than culling the herds, as they judge that the risk of infection spreading is minimised[^95].

Update August 27
It was reported on August 27 that the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration found that a 5th North Jutland mink herd is infected with COVID-19 [41].

Update September 9
As of 9 Sep 2020, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration reported the infection of 10 mink farms located in North Jutland (9 farms in Hjørring municipality and one farm in Frederikshavn municipality) [6364].
The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) will no longer issue press releases on individual findings of COVID-19 on Danish mink farms. Instead, herds with confirmed infections will be identified on the DVFA’s website: https://www.foedevarestyrelsen.dk. We will no longer report new outbreaks in Danish mink farms here. An interactive map of Denmark illustrating the distribution of the outbreaks among mink farms can be accessed here.

Update November 5
On November 5, it was announced that all mink in Denmark are to be culled, due to concerns that the animals are spreading a mutated form of coronavirus that has a reduced sensitivity to antibodies [65]. The Government is concerned that this increases the risk that vaccines being developed will not be as effective.

20 Dog in Denmark (North Jutland)

A family dog on the 1st infected mink farm in North Jutland Denmark tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (June 24) [61]. No more details were given.

21 Dogs in USA (New York state and Georgia)

Two more dogs in New York have been reported to have tested positive for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (June 24) [60]. No more details were given.

A 6-year-old mixed breed dog has tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Georgia (July 1). The dog developed sudden onset of neurological illness which progressed rapidly over the course of a couple of days, and was humanely euthanized. The owners of the dog recently tested positive for COVID-19, but the dog did not have any evidence of respiratory disease. Out of an abundance of caution, a SARS-CoV-2 test was performed on the dog. The presumptive positive result was confirmed by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory. While the dog did test positive for SARS-CoV-2, the progressive neurological illness was caused by another condition [66].

Update August 27
One additional dog in Berrien County, GA who has shown no clinical signs but shared the same household with the SARS-CoV-2 confirmed positive dog above tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by virus neutralization (VN) [67].

22 Cat and Dogs in USA (California, Texas, South Carolina)

On July 8, a cat in California and a dog in Austin, Texas were reported to have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, presumed to have been infected from their owners [57, 68].

Another dog has tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the USA (July 6), this time in South Carolina [57]. It has been reported that the dog was a 8 or 9 year old shepherd mix and tested positive for the virus after one of the owners had COVID-19. The dog had a chronic health condition, and had to be euthanased [69].
Update August 5 – South Carolina (SC): Two additional dogs in Charleston County, SC who shared the same household with the SARS-CoV-2 confirmed positive dog have tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR and virus neutralization (VN).

23 Mink farm in Spain (La Puebla de Valverde, Aragon)

Health authorities have ordered the culling of all 93,000 mink at a farm in La Puebla de Valverde in the region of Aragon, Spain (July 16). The mink were tested for SARS-Cov-2 after farm workers tested positive for the virus and 86.67% of the sample of mink tested were positive for the virus [7071].

24 Cat in Hong Kong

On July 21 the cat was placed under quarantineafter confirmation of a human case from the same household. The cat tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 but has not exhibited any specific clinical signs [72].

25 Dog USA (Arizona)

On July 23 in Arizona USA, a dog from a known positive COVID-19 household was confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories based upon molecular testing (PCR and sequencing). The affected dog was tested in July 15, and had exhibited respiratory clinical signs, but has since reportedly recovered [73].

26 Cat USA (Texas)

On 21 July in Texas, a domestic cat from a known positive COVID-19 household was confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories based upon molecular testing (PCR and sequencing). The cat showed no clinical signs and continues to be asymptomatic. Two dogs residing in the same household have remained asymptomatic and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Samples for this case were collected as part of planned and targeted active surveillance of a specific animal, with known or suspected exposures to a person with COVID-19 or other exposure to SARS-CoV-2, to better understand risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission [73].

27 Cat UK

On 21 July, a domestic cat in a UK COVID-positive household tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 based upon molecular testing (PCR). The cat showed respiratory signs indicative of feline herpesvirus, and a swab was taken in May to confirm this. The feline herpesvirus test was positive, and the SARS-CoV-2 test was performed within a surveillance project in a private laboratory. Upon receiving the result, the private veterinarian notified the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) and the initial sample, a new oral swab and a new blood sample (both taken in July) were retested. The initial sample was positive; the new oral swab was negative, and the blood sample was positive in the viral neutralization test. A 2nd house cat was negative for PCR and viral neutralisation. The positive cat has fully recovered, and, since the PCR was negative and the antibody positive, the case is considered resolved [39].

28 Dogs and Cats USA (Utah, Wisconsin, North Carolina)

Virus neutralizing antibodies in the absence of other positive test results have been detected in the following animals (listed by state):

  1. 4 cats and 2 dogs from four households (Utah)** (July 22)
  2. 2 dogs from different households (Wisconsin)** (July 22)
  3. 1 dog (North Carolina)* (July 22)

As of 23 Jul 2020, the total number of animals with detections of virus neutralizing antibody only: 12

*Animal had exposure to a probable or confirmed human with COVID-19
** Samples collected as part of planned and targeted active surveillance of a specific animal, with known or suspected exposures to a person with COVID-19 or other exposure to SARS-CoV-2, to better understand risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission [73].

29 Dog USA (Louisiana)

The Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) received its 1st reported case of a SARS-CoV-2-positive dog in Louisiana (August 3) [57, 74]. No other details were given.
5 Aug 2020 Update — Louisiana (LA): The affected dog, who had a history of hip and back lameness, was in close and prolonged contact with the COVID-positive owner and was presented to the veterinarian after showing signs of hind end lameness. Due to severe deficits and inability to stand, the dog was euthanized with a probable diagnosis of progressive intervertebral disc disease.

30 Two Dogs Japan

SARS-CoV-2 positive cases (confirmed July 30 and August 2) in two dogs owned by COVID-19 patients were reported to the OIE on August 7 by the Director of Food Safety Division, Food Safety and COnsumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan. Since April 2020, a private company in Japan has been running a voluntary service to take care of companion animals owned by COVID-19 patients while the owners are in hospital or isolation. When receiving new animals, newly arrived animals are kept in isolation until tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR.
All animals kept in the same facility as the two positive dogs have tested negative by PCR.
The employees of the private company taking care of positive dogs also tested negative for COVID-19 and no health problems have been reported [75].

31 Dog USA (North Carolina)

On August 11, state health officials from North Carolina reported that a dog from the state had tested positive for SARS-CoV and had died. The dog was presented to the veterinarian in respiratory distress on August 4, subsequently went into cardiac arrest and could not be resuscitated. A necropsy was performed and a respiratory panel tested negative. The investigation is ongoing to determine the dog’s cause of death. A second dog residing in the same household has tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR [57, 76].

32 Cats USA (New York)

It was reported on August 12, that two cats in New York had tested positive for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The samples were collected as part of planned and targeted active surveillance of the animals who had known or suspected exposures to a person with COVID-19 or other exposure to SARS-CoV-2, to better understand risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission [57].

33 Puma South Africa (City of Johannesburg, Gauteng)

It was reported to the OIE on August 12 that a puma in a zoo in the City of Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa tested positive for SARS-COV-2 after contact with infected handler. There are 2 pumas and the 2nd is also being tested. The animal was found to be positive on July 17 [77]. Given the susceptibility of other feline species to SARS-CoV-2 (confirmed cases reported in domestic cats, tigers and lions) it is not surprising that other feline species are also susceptible.

34 Dogs and cats Hong Kong

On August 13, a report was made to the OIE from the Chief Veterinary Officer of Hong Kong updating the OIE on SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in domestic animals in Hong Kong [78].
A veterinary surveillance system is in place for animals who are linked to confirmed human cases. Samples are collected from these animals for testing of SARS-CoV-2 as appropriate. From the period of 21 July to 11 Aug 2020, swab samples from a total of 4 cats and 2 dogs returned positive PCR tests. None of the animals exhibited any specific clinical signs and all were kept in the same household as of a confirmed COVID-19 patient or of a close contact of a confirmed COVID-19 patient [78].

Brief details of each case as reported to the OIE are below [78]:
Outbreak 1 (Cat: DSH), Tai Kok Tsui, Yau Tsim Mong District, Hong Kong
Date of start of the outbreak: 28/07/2020
Outbreak status: Resolved (04/08/2020)

Outbreak 2 (Dog: Yorkshire Terrier), Sham Shui Po, Yau Tsim Mong District, Hong Kong
Date of start of the outbreak: 31/07/2020
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)

Outbreak 3 (Cat: Scottish Shorthair), Tsuen Wan, Tsuen Wan District, Hong Kong
Date of start of the outbreak: 31/07/2020
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)

Outbreak 4 (Cat: DSH), Tuen Mun, Tuen Mun District, Hong Kong
Date of start of the outbreak: 04/08/2020
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)

Outbreak 5 (Dog: Siberian Husky), Wan Chai, Wan Chai District, Hong Kong
Date of start of the outbreak: 10/08/2020
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)

Update August 24
New outbreak – (Cat: DSH), Wong Tai Sin, Wong Tai Sin District, Hong Kong
Date of start of the outbreak: 13 Jul 2020
Outbreak status: resolved (25 Jul 2020)
The cat was kept in the same household as a close contact of a confirmed COVID-19 patient. The animal did not show any relevant clinical signs. A faecal sample tested positive by rtRT-PCR and the cat was subsequently confirmed to have been infected with an antibody test.

35 Cats USA (New York)

Virus neutralizing antibodies in the absence of other positive test results have been detected in two more cats in New York (August 12) [57, 76].
As of August 17 2020, the total number of animals with detections of virus neutralizing antibody only: 14 (for previous reports see note 28 in this article).
Samples were collected as part of planned and targeted active surveillance of a specific animal, with known or suspected exposures to a person with COVID-19 or other exposure to SARS-CoV-2, to better understand risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

36 Dogs and cats USA (Texas)

On August 10, a report was made to the OIE from the Associate Administrator, USDA-APHIS, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington updating the OIE on SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in domestic animals in the USA. All were pets in residential households [76].

Brief details of each case as reported to the OIE (which have not previously been reported in this article)are below [76]:
Outbreak 1 (Dog), Brazos County, Brazos, Texas
Date of start of the outbreak: 28/07/2020
Outbreak status:Continuing (or date resolved not provided)

Outbreak 2 (Cat), Brazos County, Brazos, Texas
Date of start of the outbreak: 29/07/2020
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
The cat showed no clinical signs and continues to be asymptomatic. Two other cats residing in the same household have remained asymptomatic and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Samples for this case were collected as part of planned and targeted active surveillance of a specific animal, with known or suspected exposures to a person with COVID-19 or other exposure to SARS-CoV-2, to better understand risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

37 Mink USA (Utah)

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced on August 17 that mink at two Utah fur farms have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 [57, 79]. The animals had exposure to a probable or confirmed human with COVID-19 and are thought to have been infected from the humans. State and federal agencies are investigating the transmission further and whether mink at other farms are sick [79].
Post mortem examinations were performed on several minks from the affected farms after unusually large numbers of mink died at the farms. The two farms have been quarantined, and it has been reported that there are no immediate plans for culling. There are 38 mink farms in the state [79].

Update September 1
A further 2 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Mink in Utah were reported on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s website on August 19 and another on August 25 [57].

Update September 11
5 mink farms in Utah are now affected [63, 67].

Update October 12
Mink farms infected with SARS-CoV-2 have now been reported in Wisconsin and Michigan, as well as more farms in Utah [57]. It has been reported that many thousands of minks at Utah fur farms have died due to COVID-19 and that older mink are dying while younger mink have not been symptomatic; most of the deaths have been in minks between the ages of 1 and 4 years [80]. We will no longer report new outbreaks in US mink farms here but updated information on mink (and other animal cases) in the USA can be found on the USDA website.

38 Cats and dog USA (California and Maryland)

Two cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats in California and Maryland were reported on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s website on August 19 and another on August 24 and 25 respectively [57]. A dog also tested positive in the Maryland household, reported to the OIE on August 27 [67].

39 Cat USA (Georgia)

A domestic cat from a known positive COVID-19 household was confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories based upon molecular testing (PCR and sequencing). The affected cat was recently diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and exhibited respiratory clinical signs that appeared to worsen. The cat tested positive for both mycoplasma felis and SARS-CoV-2 at the initial testing laboratory [67].

40 Cats and Dogs USA (Louisiana and Texas)

A further 6 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs in the USA have been reported on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s website as shown below (all diagnosed by PCR tests) [57].
Cat, August 27, 2020, Louisiana
Dog, September 2, 2020, Texas
Cat, September 2, 2020, Texas
Cat, September 2, 2020, Texas
Cat, September 2, 2020, Texas
Dog, September 2, 2020, Texas
No further details are given.

41 Cat Italy

A study was reported on September 11, 2020 detailing the case of a 3 year old European shorthair domestic cat with clear clinical signs of pneumonia in Italy [81]. Pneumonia was confirmed by diagnostic imaging, and the cat was found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 using quantitative RT–qPCR from a nasal swab. Despite symptomatic treatment, the cat died shortly after admission to the veterinary clinic. No samples were able to be tested to determine if the virus was present in the lungs and related to the cat’s clinical disease as the cat’s body was cremated before samples were taken. Therefore, no association can be made between detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal swab of the cat and its clinical condition. SARS-CoV-2 may have been involved in the cat’s death, but it could also have been an accidental finding [81].

42 Dogs Japan (Tokyo)

Suspected human to animal transmission
Since April 2020, a private company in Japan has been running a voluntary service to take care of companion animals owned by COVID-19 patients while the owners are in hospital or isolation. In August, two dogs who were entrusted to the private company by their owners who were to be hospitalized due to COVID-19 tested positive for SARS-CoV2 by the tests conducted by the National Laboratory in Tokyo. Neither dog exhibited any clinical signs [82].

43 Cats and Dogs USA (Kentucky, New York, Texas, Alabama)

A further 7 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs in the USA have been reported on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s website as shown below (all diagnosed by PCR tests) [57].
Cat, September 17, 2020, Kentucky
Cats (3), September 24, 2020, New York
Dog, September 30, 2020, Texas
Cat, September 30, 2020, Texas
Cat, October 6, 2020, Alabama
No further details are given.

44 Cats Chile

On October 22, the OIE was informed that three domestic cats in Chile had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. It is suspected that they were infected though human to animal transmission. The tests were carried out as part of research carried out by a State University on domestic animals in COVID-19 positive homes. The cats were sampled five days after the occurrence of symptoms in their owners (two people) who were COVID-19 positive. After the molecular results, the isolates from the owners and the animals were sequenced and a genetic cluster between them was established [83].

45 Dog(s) Canada (Niagara, Ontario)

On October 23, it was reported that an adult dog in the Niagara region of Ontario tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 [8485]. In the household where the dog lived, four of the six people living in the household had COVID-19. The dog tested positive from a rectal swab and there was also a borderline test result on the dog’s throat swab but this was low enough level that it cannot be considered a true positive [84].
There was another dog in the household who also had a borderline result on its rectal swab. Both dogs were healthy at the time of sampling and had not shown any obvious signs of disease. Both dogs will have follow up antibody testing in a few weeks [84].

46 Mink Sweden (Solvesborg)

On October 24, it was reported that several minks have tested positive for the coronavirus on a mink farm in Solvesborg in Blekinge, Sweden. People on the farm have also been found to be infected and the infection of the mink is presumed to have occurred through human to animal transmission [86].

47 Mink Italy

On October 27, it was reported by LAV [Lega Anti Vivisezione/Antivivisection League] that at least 2 samples collected in August 2020 from minks on a single farm in Italy were found positive for SARS-CoV-2. Reportedly, this information was obtained after numerous appeals and requests to access the relevant documents, addressed by LAV to the Ministry of Health, to the Scientific Technical Committee, to the Regions, and to the IZS [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale/Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute] (of Lombardy and Emilia Romagna). It was also reported that following the initial discovery of the positive cases, the Ministry of Health (and the Regions) decided to continue clinical observation of mink rather than taking any other action, even though it is known that mink with COVID-19, like people, can be asymptomatic [87].

48 Cat Brazil

On October 29, the OIE was informed that a female domestic cat in Brazil had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The test was performed as part of a research project on pets living in households with confirmed human cases of recent SARS CoV-2 infection [88].

49 Dog Italy (Bitonto, Bari region)

On Nov 5, oral and nasal swabs were collected from a 1.5-year-old female poodle living in a household with four
family members who had COVID-19 in Bitonto (Bari), Apulia, Italy. The dog has not shown clinical signs and is being monitored [89].

50 Mink Greece (Kozani region)

On November 13, it was confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 has been found in mink at 2 farms in northern Greec, the owner of the farm has also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The 2500 mink at one farm in the northern Kozani region would be culled.

The OIE released a statement on COVID-19 and mink on November 12. It was acknowledged that the risk of susceptible animals, such as mink, becoming a SARS-CoV-2 reservoir is generating worldwide concern. This could pose a continued public health risk and lead to future spillover events to humans. The evolution and mutation of the virus, which occurs naturally in humans but can also occur in other susceptible non-human animals, could have important public health implications. Further investigation, close collaboration between animal and public health authorities and a One Health approach is imperative to better identify and reduce the impact of COVID-19.

51 Update on mink

On November 16, it was reported [90] that there was opposition from government ministers in Denmark to the plans to cull all the county’s mink(outlined in section 19 [65]). This came after questions over the legality of the cull and doubts about whether the SARS-CoV-2 mutations in mink were of enough concern to justify the cull.
The next day (November 17) it was reported that the government had the numbers in parliament to push through the plan to cull all the mink in the country and a ban on mink farming until the end of 2021, after apologising for proceeding with the cull before they had the legal basis to do so [91].
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infections in US mink farms continues; the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has stated that at least 8,000 mink have died of infection with SARS-CoV-2 on farms in Utah [92] and nearly 3,400 mink have been reported to have died on fur farms in Wisconsin [90]. The Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association stated that not culling infected mink herds is not only a public health risk but also a welfare problem [93]. Sick mink are not being treated and suffer respiratory problems and severely compromised welfare [93].

Due to the increasingly large numbers of animals being tested as part of SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, there are increasing numbers of animals being reported positive around the world. We will only report cases that are different and add to our knowledge of the disease in some way from now on, rather than reporting each case in a domestic animal.

Commercial laboratory testing of companion animal samples

A large veterinary diagnostics laboratory has evaluated thousands of canine and feline samples in the USA, Canada, South Korea, and the European Union (during the validation of a new veterinary test system for SARS-CoV-2). No positive results were found, even though many samples were tested in areas where many humans were infected [2, 12].

Surveillance testing of animals in China

After human cases of COVID-19 were detected in China, veterinary departments of China have been testing samples of pigs, poultry and dogs and other domestic animals [3] and there have been no positive tests reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In China, animals from fur farms (including mink, foxes, raccoon dogs) have also been tested for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. So far all have been negative [12, 14].

In a study published in April 2020, 1,914 serum samples from 35 animal species were used for detection of SARS‐CoV‐2‐specific antibodies [94]. No SARS‐CoV‐2‐specific antibodies were detected in the samples which suggested that the possibility of 35 animal species as intermediate host for SARS‐CoV‐2 can be excluded. Companion animals including pet dogs and cats, street dogs and cats were also serologically negative to SARS‐CoV‐2, which should help to relieve public concerns that pets might be SARS‐CoV‐2 carriers. In this study, 87 cats (including 66 pet cats and 21 stray cats) were tested and were serologically negative (had no antibodies) [94]. There were no seropositive cat samples from Wuhan City in this study [94], which conflicts with the high serological prevalence of cats in Wuhan in another study [95]. The original and intermediate hosts of the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus remain unknown.

The results of another study were published in August 2020 [96] in which SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was further explored among cats in China. 630 cat serum samples were collected before November 2019 (when the virus is thought to have begun circulating in China) and 423 cat serum samples were collected during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak (from February 2020 to April 2020) in 20 cities in China in different provinces in China with human cases of COVID-19 to test the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. All cat serum samples were collected from pet hospitals and tested for SARSCoV-2 specific antibodies using ELISA tests. All 1053 cat serum samples from 20 cities in this study tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. The authors suggest that this indicates that cats play a limited role in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and that the transmission of SARSCoV-2 among cat populations is likely to be minimal [96]. However, these preliminary conclusions were made based on a relative limited number of cat serum samples and further investigation to confirm this is needed with a larger number of cats and populations.

Field studies

On April 3, some Chinese researchers reported findings suggesting that some cats in Wuhan were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 outbreak there, and that cats produce specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 under natural conditions. The researchers analysed 102 blood samples from cats after the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, and 39 prior to the outbreak. The results were published on the website biorxiv.org; a disclaimer on the biorxiv.org website notes that papers posted there “should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information.” The results indicated that cats 14.7% (15 out of the 102) of the cat blood samples collected after the outbreak tested positive for the presence of antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2. The three cats owned by COVID-19 affected patients had the highest reported levels of antibodies. It was not reported how many of the 87 cats who had no antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 lived with people who had COVID-19. The results of this research must be considered with caution, as the research has not been peer-reviewed, only small numbers of animals were involved, and the results have not been verified [97]. This study provided limited initial evidence that cats can be exposed to the virus, likely by infected people, and mount an antibody response. However, the low rate of cats who developed antibodies indicating infection, and the very low to non-existent antibody levels in all but the three cats who lived with people diagnosed with COVID-19, suggested that cats may not be readily infected with SARS-CoV-2 under natural conditions. In addition, cats who are naturally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and become infected, likely shed the virus for only a short period of time and at low levels [98]. It is not known what the significance of these results are but there is still no evidence of any cat-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 [12].
*Update – this research has now been peer reviewed and the paper published [95].

Another paper was published on April 9 on the website biorxiv.org, which reported on analysis of samples from dogs and cats living in close contact with a group of French veterinary students. Some of these students had tested positive for COVID-19 and others in the same community had subsequently showed symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection. None of the 21 pets (twelve dogs and nine cats) tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and none had antibodies to the virus [99].

Natural infection in wildlife

Wild tiger in Pench National Park, India

It was reported that a wild tiger who died in Pench National Park on April 4, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The cause of death is not known but was reported as possibly due to COVID-19. As a preacution, all forest department officials of Pench Tiger Reserve were quarantined after the death of the tiger. None showed any sign of infection and have now finished their quarantine [100].

Since it is now known that domestic cats can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, it is not unexpected that big cats can also be infected. However, it is a concern that this virus could affect and establish itself in wild animals. Of particular concern are endangered animals such as big cats like tigers. Therefore, it is important to take measures (such as closing National Parks in which there are potentially vulnerable wildlife) to prevent movement of the virus into wild animal populations.

There is no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in Australian wildlife [101] and no evidence that any other animals (including companion animals, farm animals or wildlife) are involved in the spread of this virus in Australia [5].

Wildlife Health Australia (WHA) is continually assessing information on COVID-19, including consideration of the theoretical risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to bats and other wildlife in Australia [102]. WHA has now published a report from a qualitative risk assessment on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to bats in Australia. Based on the situation and information available at the time of the assessment, the overall risk was assessed to be LOW for conservation and animal welfare consequences but with a HIGH level of uncertainty. The high level of uncertainty associated with the estimate is due to information gaps
and variability across bat populations and human activities. This finding indicates that for situations where the human COVID-19 prevalence is very low, it is reasonable for research and rehabilitation of bats to continue (and this is the case in Australia at the moment); however, additional biosecurity measures over and above routine protocols should be applied. These measures are outlined in the updated Wildlife Health Australia: COVID-19 and Australian bats – information for bat carers and others interacting with bats (this is a dynamic document and will be revised as the situation
changes). More information can be found on the WHA website.

Laboratory experiments

On April 8, a Chinese laboratory reported that they were able to experimentally infect some domestic animals with high doses of SARS-CoV-2 given directly into the animals’ respiratory system [103]. The results indicated that cats and ferrets are susceptible to experimental infection with SARS-CoV-2; dogs have a low susceptibility to infection; and pigs, chickens and ducks do not seem to be susceptible to infection. The researchers also reported that two cats became infected with SARS-CoV-2, after being experimentally exposed under ideal conditions to infected cats. The researchers suggested that cats may be able to transmit the virus to other cats. However, the results of this research must be treated with caution; while experimental studies like this offer some information about the virus and its behaviour, they cannot be directly linked to what happens in real life. Above all, only small numbers of animals were involved and it is not known whether the doses of the virus that were given to the animals to cause infection in the laboratory would occur in a natural setting where an infected person (such as the owner) was the potential source of the infection. There is no evidence that pets can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to people.

On March 23, research into the use of ferrets as an experimental animal model was reported, with the intention of using this research to evaluate treatments and vaccines for the disease in humans [104]. This research has shown that ferrets can be infected experimentally with SARS-CoV-2, can shed virus in body discharges, and that they can transmit the infection to other ferrets, all under experimental conditions. There is no evidence of natural infection of ferrets and no evidence that ferrets can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to people.

A peer-reviewed study (March 26) suggested that Syrian hamsters may also be able to be used as an experimental animal model for the human COVID-19. The researchers experimentally infected Syrian hamsters by giving them high doses of SARS-CoV-2 directly into the animals’ noses. The study presented evidence that Syrian hamsters can be experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2, have mild to moderate disease signs similar to those shown by humans with COVID-19, and that hamsters can pass SARS-CoV-2 to other hamsters. There was no evidence that hamsters play any role in transmitting COVID-19 to humans [105].

A study at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut reported on SARS-CoV-2 infection studies performed in pigs, chickens, fruit bats and ferrets. These results indicate that fruit bats and ferrets are susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but that pigs and chickens are not [12, 106107]. Again, there is no evidence of natural infection of fruit bats or ferrets, and no evidence that these animals can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to people.

Another non-peer reviewed pre-print paper investigating transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between ferrets was published on the website biorxiv.org on April 17. Little new information was added to previous research by this study, but it does support evidence that ferrets are able to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, that they can shed the virus for a relatively long time (up to 11-19 days), and that they can infect other ferrets [108].

A peer-reviewed study (May 12) found that rhesus macaques may also be able to be used as an experimental animal model for the human COVID-19 [109]. The study reports that SARS-CoV-2 causes respiratory disease in experimentally infected rhesus macaques (8), the disease lasted approximately 8-16 days. The animals had similar disease signs similar to those shown by humans with COVID-19 and shed virus in oral and nasal secretions and faeces.

There was another paper on COVID-19 and cats (involving just three cats) published on May 13 [110]. This was a very brief paper with few details and did not really provide any additional information, just further confirmation that cats can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, that infected cats may or may not get sick, and that cats can spread the virus to other cats.

Another non-peer reviewed pre-print paper investigating the pathogenesis, transmission and response to re-exposure of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic cats and dogs was published on the website biorxiv.org on June 2 [111]. This study provides some extra information on SARS-CoV-2 in cats and dogs but caution is advised in interpreting the results as it is only a small experimental study and has also not yet been peer-reviewed.
Cats:
The researchers infected one group of three cats by putting SARS-CoV-2 virus directly into their noses (intranasal innoculation). A second group of two cats were exposed to two other infected cats, the exposed cats also became infected.
All cats were tested for virus (via virus isolation and PCR) and for antibodies.
Cats from group one were exposed directly to the virus a second time (via intranasal innoculation) 28 days after initial infection to asses if they could be reinfected.
The results support previous findings that cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection (both by direct infection and infection from other infected cats), can shed the virus for approximately 5 days, but do not always develop clinical disease (none of the cats in this study showed signs of disease but they did show changes consist with mild sub-clinical disease on necropsy). In addition, the results from this paper suggest that cats develop an antibody response that prevented re-infection with the virus. It is suggested that this provides some hope that humans may, like cats, have at least some resistance to reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 if they have an antibody response (either after natural infection or a vaccine response).
It is considered that cats and dogs are not a significant source of infection or at serious risk for developing severe disease. Cats, if exposed to infected humans, seem to develop and clear infection rapidly. Therefore, as they do not shed the virus for long, this limits the likelihood of them transmitting the virus to others.
Dogs:
The researchers also infected one group of dogs (3) by via intranasal innoculation. The dogs became infected with SARS-CoV-2 but they were not found to shed virus following infection, the dogs did develop an antibody response.

Another non-peer reviewed pre-print paper reporting large-scale single-cell screening of SARS-CoV-2 target cells on a wide variety of animals was published on the website biorxiv.org on June 14 [112]. This study examined the theoretical susceptibility to SARS-Cov-2 of 11 (domestic and wild) animal species including pangolin, cat, dog, hamster, lizard, pig, goat, chicken, duck, goose, and pigeon. This agreed with previous findings that cats are highly susceptible to the virus, pangolins and hamsters also had a high susceptibility. This study reports that pigs may also be susceptible and suggests that both cats and pigs should be monitored closely during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was reported that dogs, chicken and ducks had a low susceptibility as already reported in other studies.

A non-peer reviewed pre-print paper published on the website biorxiv.org on July 26 reported that adult deer mice are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection following experimental exposure to a human isolate of the virus. In the experiment on a relatively small number of animals, this resulted in viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract with little or no signs of disease. The study also found infectious virus was shed by the deer mice and that they are capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to other non-infected deer mice through direct contact [113].

Another non-peer reviewed pre-print paper reporting on SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats was published on the website biorxiv.org on August 4. The results are similar to those of other studies where cats were intentionally experimentally infected with the virus. Both cats who were infected directly and cats who were placed in close contact with infected cats, became positive for virus transiently and developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. None of the cats showed any clinical signs of disease [77, 114].

Another non-peer reviewed pre-print paper reporting on ferrets and SARS-CoV-2 infection was published on the website biorxiv.org on August 22. This research suggests that ferrets are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection even from exposure to people who have symptomatic COVID-19, even with prolonged exposure. This is despite ferrets being shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the laboratory and indicates that domestic ferrets are at low risk of natural infection from infected people [115].

A non-peer reviewed pre-print paper reporting on rabbits and SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility was published on the website biorxiv.org on August 28. The study finds that rabbits are susceptible to experimental infection with SARS-CoV-2. It was observed that the infection is asymptomatic, rabbits excrete infectious virus from the nose and throat. It is suggested that virus transmission between rabbits is possible but may be less efficient compared with ferrets and hamsters. The authors suggest that surveillance studies including serological testing would be prudent to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in farmed rabbits [116].

Note that there is no non-experimental evidence of infections in rabbits. Serological screening of rabbit farms in The Netherlands has now been completed and all blood samples tested negative, demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 was not found to have circulated in any of the rabbit farms. Also, internationally, there are no indications of SARS-CoV-2 infections in rabbits, be they commercial rabbit enterprises or pet rabbits [42].

A non-peer reviewed pre-print paper reporting on infections in mink and humans in the Netherlands was published the website biorxiv.org on September 1 [46]. The authors conclude that the virus was initially introduced from humans and has evolved, most likely reflecting widespread circulation among mink in the beginning of the infection period several weeks prior to detection. Despite enhanced biosecurity, early warning surveillance and immediate culling of infected farms, there is ongoing transmission between mink farms in the Netherlands, with unknown modes of transmission [46]. It has also been reported that at least 66 employees or their family members linked to fur farms have had coronavirus, with mink a likely source [4546].

A non-peer reviewed pre-print paper reporting on the susceptibility of pigs to SARS-CoV-2 infection was published on the website biorxiv.org on September 10. This study reported that pigs undergoing experimental inoculation are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 at low levels. Evidence of the virus was detected in oral fluids and nasal wash from at least two animals and live virus was isolated from a pig. Antibodies to the virus were also detected. Although the significance of these results is unknown, the research does highlight the need for surveillance in a variety of domestic animals during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic [117].

A small study of six cattle was reported in September 2020 [118], which supports the previous predictions that cattle would be low-risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 based on the form of their ACE-2 receptor [119]. It was reported that viral RNA was briefly detected at low levels (probably not enough to be infectious) from nasal swabs of two out of the six cattle who had been infected with the virus. The two infected cattle developed a very low level of antibodies, despite high levels of preexisting antibody titers against a bovine betacoronavirus. No cattle who were housed with the infected cattle became infected [90]. There is no indication that cattle play any role in the human pandemic, and no reports of naturally infected bovines exist. Nevertheless, in regions with large cattle populations and high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, it may be prudent to monitor livestock for SARS-Cov-2.

On October 22, an early release version of research on the experimental infection of raccoon dogs with SARS-CoV-2 was published. The researchers at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany, demonstrated the susceptibility of raccoon dogs to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and transmission to in-contact animals in the laboratory. Infected animals had only subtle clinical signs. Virus replication and tissue lesions occurred in the animals’ noses [120]. Affected farms might be reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2, so, efficient and continuous surveillance should target susceptible animals, including raccoon dogs, especially in China, which is a key player in global fur production. Raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are kept in their millions on commercial farms across China. Other wild species, namely (American) minks, silver foxes, and blue foxes, are similarly farmed in China for fur production [121]. Natural SARS-CoV-1 infection of raccoon dogs has been documented in China [122]. However, in spite of this industry’s very large size, there is no report/evidence so far from farms in China on field cases affecting any fur animals due to SARS-CoV-2, nor of relevant surveillance, despite infections in mink in multiple countries across the globe [121].

Due to the large volume of research on this topic, we will only update this section if any significant new knowledge becomes apparent through new research.

Results of these experimental studies must be regarded with caution and not extrapolated to mean that these animals will be infected naturally under real world conditions. Experimental conditions, which are ideal for viral infection and transmission, are very different to natural conditions, which tend to be far less favourable to the occurrence of infection and transmission. In addition, these studies involve very small numbers of animals and may not accurately represent what occurs in the real world.

Other literature

A paper was published on April 14 by Xia, suggesting that stray dogs might have served as the bridge for transmission between a bat and humans for COVID-19 [123]. There are no confirmed scientific findings in this paper, just speculation based on the author’s theories. There is no validated evidence to suggest that dogs are involved in the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and caution should be used when considering this paper’s unsubstantiated and speculative conclusions.
On July 13, a paper was published effectively disputing the conclusions of Xia (2020) that dogs are a likely intermediate host of a SARS-CoV-2 ancestor [124]. The authors highlight major flaws in Xia’s inference process and his analysis of CpG deficiencies, and conclude that there is no direct evidence for the role of dogs as intermediate hosts. Bats and pangolins currently have the greatest support as ancestral hosts of SARS-CoV-2, with the strong caveat that sampling of wildlife species for coronaviruses has been limited.

On April 11 & 18, two non-peer reviewed pre-print papers were posted on the bioRxiv site discussing molecular modelling and in vitro studies that assess some of the molecular pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This information is then used as a basis for theorising whether certain species may be potentially susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This kind of information may help to discover more about the biology and behaviour of SARS-CoV-2, but cannot be used to make definitive judgements about whether SARS-CoV-2 can infect or be transmitted by particular animal species under natural (or experimental) conditions [12].

Another non-peer reviewed pre-print paper discussing the potential for the anti-parasitic medication ivermectin to treat COVID-19 in people, was published on the Biorxiv on April 17. This is a medication that is used as a heartworm medication in pets. This paper concluded that, although ivermectin can kill SARS-CoV-2, the concentration needed is very high and it is not a viable treatment for COVID-19 because drug levels that would kill the SARS-CoV-2 virus would likely be toxic to the patient, potentially fatally [125].

It has been postulated that some marine mammals may be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 [126127]] [128129] but, given the current information, overall the risk seems low [129]. Marine mammals could potentially be exposed to the virus from infected humans via direct human contact with marine mammals (with captive animals and sometimes with wild animals during field studies) or exposure of wild marine mammals to the virus via sewage.

A study was published in November 2020 [91], which stated that the results demonstrate that “living with dogs… have been the main routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the most restrictive period of confinement in Spain”. However, this statement is incorrect, the study did not that show pet or dog ownership was a risk factor for COVID-19. The media have focused on this erroneous statement and the study authors’ suggestion that dogs may be infected with coronavirus and spread the virus to people directly through excreting virus or that the dogs might act as a fomite after touching unclean surfaces (just physically transport the virus and infect people through their contact with the virus on the dogs hair or paws for example). While this is theoretically possible, what the study shows is an association between walking a pet and a greater likelihood of being infected (in Spain which has a very high incidence of SARS-CoV-2 unlike countries such as Australia). The study does not give evidence on why that may be the case or even if having a dog is the real reason why those people had a greater likelihood of having COVID-19 (there could be another unknown factor that is common to dog owners that is the cause of the association). There are also numerous other issues with the study, a good explanation of these can be found here. While it is theoretically possible that a dog may infect a person either directly or via fomite transmission, a lot of other evidence suggests this is unlikely. It seems more likely that the behaviours associated with having a dog (leaving the home and going out into public spaces to walk the dog for example) may increase exposure to the virus, especially if people do not take adequate precautions when walking their dog in environments where there is a high amount of virus circulating (e.g. precautions would be wearing a mask, social distancing, not touching surfaces, hand hygiene etc).

These experimental research reports do not provide conclusive evidence that cats, ferrets, or other domestic animals can be readily infected with SARS-CoV-2 naturally, nor do they demonstrate that cats, ferrets or other domestic animals transmit the virus under natural conditions [12]. However, the evidence does support taking some precautionary steps to protect our pets.

Testing for SARS-CoV-2 and monitoring transmission

Public health services and disease experts around the world are closely monitoring the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and continue to maintain that there is no evidence of transmission from domestic animals to people, and that even human-to-animal transmission is not a significant way for the virus to spread [1213]. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that domestic animals infected by humans are playing a role in the spread of COVID-19.

Routine testing of animals for SARS-CoV-2 is not recommended [4, 12, 130131]. Although a SARS-Cov-2 test for pets is now available in Australia, diagnostic testing and surveillance in Australian animals for COVID-19 is not recommended, unless on the advice of human and animal health authorities if the case meets very specific criteria [130131].

It is also important to note that infection of animals with SARS-CoV-2 needs to be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), through the relevant authorities .

Precautions

Animal owners/handlers should continue to implement good hygiene and farm biosecurity practices where animals are kept, including washing their hands before and after contact with animals. People who are sick or under medical attention for COVID-19 should avoid or minimise close contact with animals as a precaution, just as they would with other people [131]. While these are recommended as good practices, it is important to remember that there is little to no evidence that pets or other domestic animals who are naturally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 become sick with COVID-19 or spread the virus to other domestic animals, and no evidence that they can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to people. Accordingly, there is no reason to remove pets from homes even if COVID-19 has been identified in members of the household, unless there is risk that the pet itself is not able to be cared for appropriately. During this pandemic emergency, pets and people each need the support, comfort and companionship of the other and should stay together if possible [12].

How can I ensure my animal’s welfare during the COVID-19 restrictions?

There are four possible scenarios you need to prepare for under the current circumstances and you’ll need to consider how to ensure your pet’s welfare in each of these.

  1. You are practising social distancing
  2. You are in self-isolation but are not sick or suspected of having COVID-19 infection
  3. You or someone in your family is sick with or suspected of having COVID-19
  4. You require hospitalisation due to COVID-19

For information about leaving your home to care for animals during the COVID-19 pandemic can be found here.

Resources

There are some simple but important steps you can take to ensure the health and safety of your own pets and neighbours’ pets in the case of an emergency. We have prepared these interactive PDFs to help you prepare your emergency plan for your animals:

Acknowledgement

The Pet Emergency Plan initiative is funded by the Natural Disaster Resilience Program, and has been developed by RSPCA South Australia in partnership with the Commonwealth and State Government of South Australia.

If you are facing challenges caring for your animals, please get in touch with your local RSPCA to discuss options; we are here to offer support and help if possible.

Please note that there are many things that are currently unknown about this virus and the risk it poses to pets and from pets to humans. This information has been prepared with the best and most current information available at the time but things are changing rapidly as the situation evolves. Our information is updated as often as possible.

[^95] ProMED (2020) COVID-19 update (299): Denmark (North Jutland) Netherlands, farmed mink, spread.

References

[1] World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) (2020) Information for veterinarians on the novel coronavirus.

[2] Australian Veterinary Association (2020) COVID-19 and pets: Update from the AVA President.

[3] World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2020) Questions and Answers on the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).

[4] Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020) Novel Coronavirus and Animals.

[5] Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) (2020) COVID-19 Information Sheet.

[6] Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) (2020) COVID-19 Dashboard.

[7] World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2020) OIE Technical Factsheet – SARS-CoV-2.

[8] World Health Organisation (WHO) (2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – If You Have Animals.

[9] World Health Organisation (WHO) (2020) Coronavirus.

[10] Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) (2020) Update on report of transmission from human to pet dog in Hong Kong.

[11] Sit THC, Brackman CJ, Ip SM et al (2020) Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2. Nature, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2334-5.

[12] American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) (2020) SARS-CoV-2 in animals, including pets.

[13] World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) (2020) COVID-19 – An update for WSAVA Members – Week ending April 3rd, 2020.

[14] OIE Advisory Group on COVID-19 and animals (2020) 4th call of the OIE Advisory Group on COVID-19 and animals 31st March 2020.

[15] United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2020) USDA Statement on the Confirmation of COVID-19 in a Tiger in New York.

[16] World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2020) OIE Report SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 lion test

[17] Bronx Zoo (2020) 22.4.2020 Update: Bronx Zoo Tigers and Lions Recovering from COVID-19.

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