There is some evidence that cats, dogs, hamsters and ferrets are vulnerable to being infected with SARS-CoV-2 from close contact with infected people, although this does not seem common [1–2]. Therefore, we recommend some precautions to keep people, pets and the community safe .
The human-animal bond people share with their companion animals is very important and can provide much needed support, comfort and companionship to people in these difficult times, so if possible people and their companion animals should stay together for the benefit of both.
While it is possible for some domestic animals to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 from people, it appears that it is unusual for domestic animals to become ill from the virus if they are infected and, crucially, there is no evidence that domestic animals can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to people or that they are involved in the spread of COVID-19 [1–2, 4–7].
Summary of available evidence
There are now many millions of cases globally of COVID-19 and, despite this, there have only been a small number of confirmed cases of pets, and captive or farmed wild animals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. In all cases, it is thought that the source of the infection for these animals was one or more persons with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Just a very small number of infected domestic animals have shown some mild signs of illness.
There is no evidence of companion animals, livestock or wildlife in Australia being infected or becoming ill with SARS-CoV-2.
There is evidence that cats are susceptible to being infected with SARS-CoV-2, seemingly from close contact with people who are infected and shedding the virus, although this does not seem common. They also seem to sometimes show mild symptoms associated with the viral infection.
Ferrets, primates and Syrian hamsters also seem susceptible to being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and, to a lesser degree, dogs.
There is no evidence of any cat, ferret, hamster, dog or other domestic animal transmitting the virus to humans, or that they play any role in the spread of the virus.
Since there is some evidence of cats and dogs becoming infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans who have COVID-19, we need to take some precautionary steps to protect our pets.
In order to protect yourself, your animals and other people , our advice is to:
- To protect each other and our communities, please isolate if you are unwell or under stay at home orders/movement restrictions/lockdowns. In simple terms, think of the people and animals that you are sharing your home with and who you are in contact with (your family unit or household) as needing to stay isolated within a bubble. To minimise the risk of transmission of the virus, the members of your household should only have contact with each other. If one of you is exposed in any way, this will result in all of you being exposed. Similarly, if one of you is infected with the virus and interacts with others, you risk infecting them and, as a result, anyone they have contact with. So, take extra precautions to protect your family unit of people and pets, and the community.
- Socially distance your pet(s) in the same way you are socially distancing yourself from other people. Do not let pets interact with people or other animals outside the household. This will minimise the risk to them and the potential to bring the virus into your household.
- Animal owners without symptoms of COVID-19 should continue to practice good hygiene during interactions with animals. This includes washing hands before and after such interactions and when handling animal food, waste, or supplies.
- If you are infected with SARS-CoV-2, eliminate or limit contact with other people and animals. Someone else should care for any animals, including pets. You can find more information here.
- If your pet has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, you should keep them in the house with you.
- If your pet has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and is sick, call your veterinarian for advice; do not take your pet to the veterinary clinic unless your veterinarian has advised you to and can take precautions.
- If it is necessary for a pet who has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 to leave their house (e.g. to go to a veterinary clinic for medical care or because their owner is too sick to care for them or has to go into hospital), it is important that precautions are taken to reduce the risk of exposing other people or animals to the virus.
Testing for SARS-CoV-2 and monitoring transmission
Public health services and disease experts around the world are closely monitoring the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and continue to maintain that there is no evidence of transmission from domestic animals to people, and that even human-to-animal transmission is not a significant way for the virus to spread [2, 8]. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that animals infected by humans are playing a role in the spread of COVID-19. Routine testing of animals for SARS-CoV-2 is not recommended [2, 6, 9–10]. Although a SARS-Cov-2 test for pets is now available in Australia, diagnostic testing and surveillance in Australian animals for COVID-19 is not recommended, unless on the advice of human and animal health authorities if the case meets very specific criteria [9–10]. It is also important to note that infection of animals with SARS-CoV-2 needs to be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), through the relevant authorities.
How can I ensure my animal’s welfare during the COVID-19 restrictions?
There are five possible scenarios you need to prepare for under the current circumstances and you’ll need to consider how to ensure your pet’s welfare in each of these.
- You are practising social distancing
- You are in self-isolation but are not sick or suspected of having COVID-19 infection
- You or someone in your family is sick with or suspected of having COVID-19
- You require hospitalisation or must quarantine/isolate in a facility away from your home due to COVID-19
- Can I leave my home to care for animals during the COVID-19 pandemic?
If you are facing challenges caring for your animals, please get in touch with your local RSPCA to discuss options; we are here to offer support and help if possible.
Please note that there are many things that are currently unknown about this virus and the risk it poses to pets and from pets to humans. This information has been prepared with the best and most current information available at the time but things are changing rapidly as the situation evolves. Our information is updated as often as possible.
 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2020) Questions and Answers on the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).
 World Health Organisation (WHO) (2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – If You Have Animals.
 World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) (2020) Information for veterinarians on the novel coronavirus.
 World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) (2020) COVID-19 – An update for WSAVA Members – Week ending April 3rd, 2020.
 Animal Health Committee (AHC) of the National Biosecurity Committee (NBC) (2020) Policy statement on COVID-19 diagnostic testing and surveillance in animals.