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Livestock transported in Australia are routinely deprived of water for variable periods including curfew (prior to transport), during transport and in saleyards and depots. Under the Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for the Land Transport of Livestock, the maximum total time off water is 48 hours for cattle and goats over the age of 6 months and sheep over the age of 4 months. For adult pigs, the maximum time off water is 24 hours.
Water is required by all animals for survival including maintenance of bodily systems, fluid balance, body temperature, electrolyte concentrations, and to satisfy thirst. Periods of water restriction may pose a risk to animal health and welfare.
The effects of water deprivation can be categorised as clinical (illness or disease state), physiological (changes in functional pathways), behavioural (activity, actions and interactions), and emotional (subjective experience).
The majority of livestock studies focus on the clinical and physiological effects of water deprivation such as clinical dehydration, body weight loss, changes in blood cell counts and blood values including indicators of kidney dysfunction and failure. These studies are rarely conducted on animals subject to the range of stressors inherent in transportation. There is also little research available on the behavioural or emotional effects of water deprivation in livestock despite recommendations for animal welfare standards to take subjective experiences such as thirst into account.
The European Food Safety Authority Panel on Animal Health and Welfare in their report ‘Scientific Opinion Concerning the Welfare of Animals during Transport’ considered the literature available at the time and recommended that healthy adult sheep transported under good conditions can tolerate food and water deprivation up to 48 hours but adult cattle should not be transported longer than 29 hours without food and water due to fatigue and physiological changes. How translatable these recommendations are to Australian livestock transported in Australian conditions is unknown.
Animals’ stress status influences how long they can go without water because hormones released as part of the stress response can have a diuretic effect that contributes to dehydration. The duration of water deprivation that any animal is able to endure may also depend on factors including:
The ability of ruminants to endure water deprivation assumes that the animals are well fed and hydrated prior. One study concluded that sheep (in a cool temperate climate) brought immediately in from pasture were “not clinically compromised” by 48 hours of transport where they had no access to feed or water. However, when deprived of both food and water prior to transport, which is common practice in Australia (curfew), sheep energy stores are depleted after 24 hours and they become approximately 10% dehydrated after 72 hours. In 2006, the authors of a report for Meat and Livestock Australia, wrote “It is the opinion of the authors of this review that a practice which routinely resulted in 10% dehydration in animals would not be regarded as acceptable in welfare terms by veterinarians.” In addition, food and water deprivation can lead to changes in the microbiology of the rumen including increased growth of harmful bacteria. In a comprehensive review of the impact of feed and water deprivation on sheep and cattle before and during transport commissioned by Meat and Livestock Australia in 2007, the authors recommended that “Based on the potential for enteropathogen growth and the potential for an increase in stress to the animal, it appears prudent to ensure that total time off food and/or water does not exceed 24 hours.”
From an animal welfare perspective, just because an animal possesses adaptations to endure a period of water deprivation does not mean the animal should be pushed to their limits. In addition, it should be noted that if given the opportunity to exercise choice, these animals would drink suitable water available in a suitable presentation. For example, in most management systems, Bos taurus cattle will drink several times a day.
There is a lack of studies evaluating the appropriate time off water for transported livestock in Australia. However, applying a precautionary principle and taking into account what evidence is available to date, it would appear sensible to apply a maximum time off water which best satisfies the majority of animals’ water needs and choices while minimising the potential ill-effects of water deprivation.
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