Feline inappropriate urination (urinating in the wrong place) is a common issue for cat owners. It often involves the cat urinating outside their litter box in an inappropriate area or on an inappropriate object. The causes are generally medical or behavioural in origin.
Diseases of the urinary tract can cause inappropriate urination. There are many such conditions, including bladder stones, bacterial infections, and other inflammatory diseases that can cause pain and an increased urgency to urinate. Diseases of the kidneys and liver can cause cats to drink more and thus urinate more frequently. Urinating more frequently means that cats may not reach their litter tray in time or that the litter tray becomes soiled very quickly which may deter the cat from using it again until the litter is changed.
Age-related brain function decline and hormonal disorders such as diabetes, may also lead to changes in urination habits. A pet’s mobility and sensory function may also affect their urinating habits. Medical conditions affecting the nerves, muscles, or joints, could lead to discomfort, stiffness or weakness such that a cat may not be able to get to the litter tray or get into the litter tray easily. For example a cat with arthritis may find it difficult to climb into their litter tray.
If your cat is urinating inappropriately we highly recommend making an appointment for your cat at your local veterinary clinic for a thorough physical examination and assessment. It is important to rule out any medical causes of inappropriate urination prior to addressing any behavioural causes.
** Please note that if a cat is having trouble urinating i.e. the cat cannot urinate or urinate normally they could have a urinary 'blockage' - this is a medical emergency. 'Blocked' urination is generally a problem associated more with male cats and can be fatal. Please see your local vet immediately should you suspect your cat could be blocked.
There are many behavioural reasons why cats may begin to urinate inappropriately. Frustration, stress, or anxiety can sometimes cause a cat to change their urinating habits. Any change in their routine, such as a new person in the household or moving house, can lead to changes in urination. They may also “mark” spots in the house with their urine as a means of marking their territory. Territorial “marking” may be considered part of normal behaviour and can be triggered by the presence or odour of another cat. However, some cats will also “mark” their environment in response to stress or anxiety.
Cats may also change their urinating patterns if they have issues with their litter tray. They may not like the type of litter tray, the litter material or where the litter tray is located. Some suggestions to deal with behavioural causes of inappropriate urination are listed:
- Providing multiple litter trays in various locations in the house and trying different cat litter brands may help.
- Litter trays placed in areas that are unappealing to your cat will tend to discourage the cat from using the tray. Cats also prefer to urinate in private, so placing the tray in a quiet area away from any household traffic and noise can help.
- Sometimes cats have difficulty using certain litter trays, for example, an elderly cat with arthritis may find it difficult to climb into a litter tray with high sides. An open uncovered tray, or one with lower sides would be much easier for an older cat to access.
- For some cats, it is necessary to keep the litter tray scrupulously clean. This may mean changing the box daily or a few times a day. Cats may be reluctant to use the litter tray if it has been recently deodorised or if the cat dislikes the odour of the cleansers, so rinsing well with water after cleaning is recommended. Please ensure you clean the tray with products that are safe for use around cats.
- Cats can develop preferences for certain substrates to urinate on, such as a wooden floor or carpet. Restricting access to the area or object involved may help to break the cycle.
- You may also try to place a litter tray where the cat has been urinating as they may have become accustomed to urinating in that particular area. If the cat uses the tray in that location, the tray should be left there for at least one week. Then the tray can slowly (a little bit each day) be moved to a new location. This needs to be done very carefully to be sure that your cat follows the tray and continues to use it as it is moved.
- Some cat behaviouralists advise spraying odour neutralizers on the area where your cat has urinated inappropriately. This removes the urine smell which may help to decrease your cat’s interest in continuing to urinate on that spot. At the same time, you should provide litter trays in other locations to further encourage your cat to urinate elsewhere. Please ensure any odour neutralizers are safe for use around cats. If another cat has left their odours around the house and this has caused a change in the resident cat’s urinating habits, it is important to eliminate the other cats’ smells. This may help to reduce the “stress” and drive to “mark” territory in the resident cat.
- If a new cat has been introduced into the house as a new pet it is vital to provide multiple litter trays throughout the house for each individual cat.
- Another technique to discourage a cat from urinating in an unsuitable area is to change the function of that area by turning it into a feeding, playing, sleeping or scratching area which may reduce the cat’s desire to urinate there.
Your veterinarian can provide further advice. They may discuss for example, feline pheromone sprays/diffusers which can help stressed or anxious cats.
Marking allows a cat to surround itself with their own familiar smells. When cats “mark” territory they usually back up to a vertical surface, raise their tail, tread with their back feet, the tail may quiver and a small stream of urine is directed backwards. Marking usually involves urinating on vertical surfaces but may also involve urinating on horizontal surfaces. Though un-desexed male cats are the most likely to urine “mark”, marking has been seen in neutered males and females as well. If your cat is marking because another cat's smells are in their area cleaning any area where the other cat ventured and cleaning any materials touched by the other cat (where possible) may assist in preventing further marking. Please do ensure that any cleaners are safe for use around cats.